Finding all used Classes, Methods and Functions of a Python Module

Another blog post in which I use sys.settrace. This time to solve a real problem.

When working with new modules, it is sometimes beneficial to get a glimpse of which entities of a module are actually used. I wrote something comparable in my blog post Instrumenting Java Code to Find and Handle Unused Classes, but this time, I need it in Python and with method-level granularity.

TL;DR

Download trace.py from GitHub and use it to print a call tree and a list of used methods and classes to the error output:

import trace
trace.setup(r"MODULE_REGEX", print_location_=True)

Implementation

This could be a hard problem, but it isn’t when we’re using sys.settrace to set a handler for every method and function call, reapplying the knowledge we gained in my Let’s create a debugger together series to develop a small utility.

There are essentially six different types of functions (this sample code is on GitHub):

def log(message: str):
    print(message)


class TestClass:
    # static initializer of the class
    x = 100

    def __init__(self):
        # constructor
        log("instance initializer")

    def instance_method(self):
        # instance method, self is bound to an instance
        log("instance method")

    @staticmethod
    def static_method():
        log("static method")

    @classmethod
    def class_method(cls):
        log("class method")


def free_function():
    log("free function")

This is important because we have to handle them differently in the following. But first, let’s define a few helpers and configuration variables:

indent = 0
module_matcher: str = ".*"
print_location: bool = False

We also want to print a method call-tree, so we use indent to track the current indentation level. The module_matcher is the regular expression that we use to determine whether we want to consider a module, its classes, and methods. This could, e.g., be __main__ to only consider the main module. The print_location tells us whether we want to print the path and line location for every element in the call tree.

Now to the main helper class:

def log(message: str):
    print(message, file=sys.stderr)


STATIC_INIT = "<static init>"

@dataclass
class ClassInfo:
    """ Used methods of a class """
    name: str
    used_methods: Set[str] = field(default_factory=set)

    def print(self, indent_: str):
        log(indent_ + self.name)
        for method in sorted(self.used_methods):
            log(indent_ + "  " + method)

    def has_only_static_init(self) -> bool:
        return (
                    len(self.used_methods) == 1 and
                    self.used_methods.pop() == STATIC_INIT)

used_classes: Dict[str, ClassInfo] = {}
free_functions: Set[str] = set()

The ClassInfo stores the used methods of a class. We store the ClassInfo instances of used classes and the free function in global variables.

Now to the our call handler that we pass to sys.settrace:

def handler(frame: FrameType, event: str, *args):
    """ Trace handler that prints and tracks called functions """
    # find module name
    module_name: str = mod.__name__ if (
        mod := inspect.getmodule(frame.f_code)) else ""

    # get name of the code object
    func_name = frame.f_code.co_name

    # check that the module matches the define regexp
    if not re.match(module_matcher, module_name):
        return
    
    # keep indent in sync
    # this is the only reason why we need
    # the return events and use an inner trace handler
    global indent
    if event == 'return':
        indent -= 2
        return
    if event != "call":
        return

    # insert the current function/method
    name = insert_class_or_function(module_name, func_name, frame)

    # print the current location if neccessary
    if print_location:
        do_print_location(frame)
    
    # print the current function/method
    log(" " * indent + name)

    # keep the indent in sync
    indent += 2

    # return this as the inner handler to get
    # return events
    return handler


def setup(module_matcher_: str = ".*", print_location_: bool = False):
    # ...
    sys.settrace(handler)

Now, we “only” have to get the name for the code object and collect it properly in either a ClassInfo instance or the set of free functions. The base case is easy: When the current frame contains a local variable self, we probably have an instance method, and when it contains a cls variable, we have a class method.

def insert_class_or_function(module_name: str, func_name: str,
                             frame: FrameType) -> str:
    """ Insert the code object and return the name to print """
    if "self" in frame.f_locals or "cls" in frame.f_locals:
        return insert_class_or_instance_function(module_name,
                                                 func_name, frame)
   # ...

def insert_class_or_instance_function(module_name: str,
                                      func_name: str,
                                      frame: FrameType) -> str:
    """
    Insert the code object of an instance or class function and
    return the name to print
    """
    class_name = ""

    if "self" in frame.f_locals:
        # instance methods
        class_name = frame.f_locals["self"].__class__.__name__

    elif "cls" in frame.f_locals:
        # class method
        class_name = frame.f_locals["cls"].__name__
        # we prefix the class method name with "<class>"
        func_name = "<class>" + func_name
    
    # add the module name to class name
    class_name = module_name + "." + class_name
    get_class_info(class_name).used_methods.add(func_name)
    used_classes[class_name].used_methods.add(func_name)
    
    # return the string to print in the class tree
    return class_name + "." + func_name

But how about the other three cases? We use the header line of a method to distinguish between them:

class StaticFunctionType(Enum):
    INIT = 1
    """ static init """
    STATIC = 2
    """ static function """
    FREE = 3
    """ free function, not related to a class """


def get_static_type(code: CodeType) -> StaticFunctionType:
    file_lines = Path(code.co_filename).read_text().split("\n")
    line = code.co_firstlineno
    header_line = file_lines[line - 1]
    if "class " in header_line:
        # e.g. "class TestClass"
        return StaticFunctionType.INIT
    if "@staticmethod" in header_line:
        return StaticFunctionType.STATIC
    return StaticFunctionType.FREE

These are, of course, just approximations, but they work well enough for a small utility used for exploration.

If you know any other way that doesn’t involve using the Python AST, feel free to post in a comment below.

Using the get_static_type function, we can now finish the insert_class_or_function function:

def insert_class_or_function(module_name: str, func_name: str,
                             frame: FrameType) -> str:
    """ Insert the code object and return the name to print """
    if "self" in frame.f_locals or "cls" in frame.f_locals:
        return insert_class_or_instance_function(module_name,
                                                 func_name, frame)
    # get the type of the current code object
    t = get_static_type(frame.f_code)

    if t == StaticFunctionType.INIT:
        # static initializer, the top level class code
        # func_name is actually the class name here,
        # but classes are technically also callable function
        # objects
        class_name = module_name + "." + func_name
        get_class_info(class_name).used_methods.add(STATIC_INIT)
        return class_name + "." + STATIC_INIT
    
    elif t == StaticFunctionType.STATIC:
        # @staticmethod
        # the qualname is in our example TestClass.static_method,
        # so we have to drop the last part of the name to get
        # the class name
        class_name = module_name + "." + frame.f_code.co_qualname[
                                         :-len(func_name) - 1]
        # we prefix static class names with "<static>"
        func_name = "<static>" + func_name
        get_class_info(class_name).used_methods.add(func_name)
        return class_name + "." + func_name
 
    free_functions.add(frame.f_code.co_name)
    return module_name + "." + func_name

The final thing left to do is to register a teardown handler to print the collected information on exit:

def teardown():
    """ Teardown the tracer and print the results """
    sys.settrace(None)
    log("********** Trace Results **********")
    print_info()


# trigger teardown on exit
atexit.register(teardown)

Usage

We now prefix our sample program from the beginning with

import trace

trace.setup(r"__main__")

collect all information for the __main__ module, which is directly passed to the Python interpreter.

We append to our program some code to call all methods/functions:

def all_methods():
    log("all methods")
    TestClass().instance_method()
    TestClass.static_method()
    TestClass.class_method()
    free_function()


all_methods()

Our utility library then prints the following upon execution:

standard error:

    __main__.TestClass.<static init>
    __main__.all_methods
      __main__.log
      __main__.TestClass.__init__
        __main__.log
      __main__.TestClass.instance_method
        __main__.log
      __main__.TestClass.<static>static_method
        __main__.log
      __main__.TestClass.<class>class_method
        __main__.log
      __main__.free_function
        __main__.log
    ********** Trace Results **********
    Used classes:
      only static init:
      not only static init:
       __main__.TestClass
         <class>class_method
         <static init>
         <static>static_method
         __init__
         instance_method
    Free functions:
      all_methods
      free_function
      log

standard output:

    all methods
    instance initializer
    instance method
    static method
    class method
    free function

Conclusion

This small utility uses the power of sys.settrace (and some string processing) to find a module’s used classes, methods, and functions and the call tree. The utility is pretty helpful when trying to grasp the inner structure of a module and the module entities used transitively by your own application code.

I published this code under the MIT license on GitHub, so feel free to improve, extend, and modify it. Come back in a few weeks to see why I actually developed this utility…

This article is part of my work in the SapMachine team at SAP, making profiling and debugging easier for everyone.